BATTLE FOR GERMANY is a strategic-level simulation of the final death throes of the Third Reich. The game was designed by James F. Dunnigan and originally published in 1975 by Simulations Publications, Inc. (SPI) as an “insert” game in S&T #50. Later, it was offered by SPI as a Folio Game. In 1994, after undergoing a few minor modifications to the rules, map, and counter-mix, the game was reissued by Decision Games. The Decision Games version is the one that will be the main focus of this analysis.


In the closing months of 1944, Allied armies were closing in on the Third Reich from all sides. British, American, and Canadian troops had broken out of the Normandy beachhead, destroyed the bulk of von Kluge’s army group, and were already pushing up against the Siegfried Line in the West; in the South, Rome had fallen months earlier to an Allied force commanded by General Mark Clark. Soon after the surrender of the “Eternal City,” the victorious Allies had resumed their northern advance up the Italian peninsula. The news was just as bad from the Russian Front: there another entire German Army Group, under Field Marshal Busch, had been shattered by the Russian Summer Offensive, “Operation Bagration.” Only the speed and depth of the Russian advance and the length of the new Russian supply lines had allowed the Wehrmacht to restore some semblance of order to their front. As Europe prepared to enter the sixth year of the war, Germany's strategic position seemed hopeless.

However, despite these multiple catastrophes, Hitler was not prepared to admit defeat. Instead, the German dictator poured over his maps frantically searching for one last offensive opportunity that might reverse this cascading string of German defeats: a battlefield victory that could retrieve the Third Reich’s fortunes long enough for the new German “wonder” weapons to make an impact on the war. In the forested section of the German frontier that bordered Belgium and Luxembourg — the site of the Germans’ brilliant surprise offensive of 1940 — Hitler finally decided that he had found it. The German Führer would attempt to repeat his earlier military triumph by again attacking through the Ardennes. This desperate military “throw of the dice” would be Hitler’s last major effort to turn the tide of battle in the west. The code name selected for this, Germany’s last winter offensive, was ‘Wacht am Rhein’ which, when translated, meant “Watch on the Rhine.”

At 0530 on 16 December 1944, Hitler's last major offensive in the west jumped off with a violent, hour-long artillery bombardment from 1,900 guns along eighty-five miles of the Allied front line in the Ardennes region of Belgium. As soon as the barrage lifted, the 250,000 men and 1,100 tanks of Field Marshal Model’s Army Group B smashed into the dazed defenders of this thinly held section of the American line. The German offensive that would come to be known as the “Battle of the Bulge” had begun. The German plan was to tear a hole in the American front and then to rush powerful panzer forces through the newly-formed gap. The panzers, once they had achieved freedom of maneuver, were to force a crossing of the Meuse River, and were then to pivot northwest to seize the port city of Antwerp before the Allied High Command had an opportunity to react. The German seizure of this important Allied supply center would isolate the substantial British, Canadian, and American forces north of Aachen. Hitler hoped this might finally force the Western Allies to accept a separate, negotiated peace with the Third Reich.


BATTLE FOR GERMANY is a strategic level (corps/army/front) simulation — based loosely on the NAPOLEON AT WATERLOO Game System — of the bloody 1944-45 campaigns by the American-led Allies in the west and the Red Army in the east to bring about the final and complete destruction of Hitler’s Third Reich. The standard game spans the time between 15 December 1944, and 15 May, 1945; it was during this five month period that the last armed German resistance was completely crushed by the steadily advancing Allies. The game is played in game turns, each of which is composed of sequenced player turns. A single game turn is equal to one-half month (a fortnight) of real time. The combat units represent the historical corps, armies, and Soviet fronts (army groups) that actually took part in these closing campaigns against the Reich, and each hex on the map sheet represents 67.1 kilometers from side to side. Because the game uses as its platform, the NAW Game System, the mechanics of play are very simple: players Move and then engage in Combat, each in turn. Zones of control (ZOCs) are rigid but not sticky, and combat is voluntary. Surprisingly, given the scale of the game, there are no supply rules. Stacking is limited to two units per hex, and the powerful Soviet Fronts may not stack together. Terrain types are simple and restricted to specific categories: clear, ocean and lake, swamp, rough, broken, fortified hexes, and rivers. Terrain Effects either double or triple defending units and are cumulative. Interestingly, in spite of its simple and familiar game system, BATTLE FOR GERMANY is unique among war games. The one design characteristic that really sets BATTLE FOR GERMANY apart from other conflict simulations is that — in the Historical scenario, at least — one player controls the German armies in the west and the Russian armies in the east, while the other player controls both the Germans on the Eastern Front, and the Allied armies attacking across the Siegfried Line in the west and in Italy. The obvious major benefit of this approach is that both players get to attack and defend on different fronts during the same game turn.

The magazine-style game rules are generally well-organized and clearly written; moreover, at only eight pages, including illustrations and game charts, they are also short. Rules errata and corrections are minimal, although Decision Games did manage to botch up the game map’s Turn Record/Reinforcement Track by mislabeling the end-point of the Collapse in the East scenario: this scenario actually ends at the conclusion of game turn six, not turn two, as the DG turn record track indicates. Scenario instructions and set-ups are incorporated directly into the rules booklet; there are no separate scenario cards or set-up sheets included with the game. Rules changes, thankfully, are few: replacements in the DG edition may move their full movement allowance after placement; this is a small change from the SPI version that counted the placement hex against the replacement unit’s available movement allowance. Another rules change worth noting is the introduction of German and Soviet forces off-map, in Courland. The German player may transfer one of the four German corps that starts the game in the Courland “box” to one of two Axis-controlled ports on the Baltic Coast beginning with the Replacement Phase of game turn two. Only one such transfer may be attempted each game turn, and this move is not completely risk-free: there is a one-sixth chance of each of these units being sunk on the turn of its transfer. As soon as all four German corps have been withdrawn from the off-map “box,” the Soviet player may then bring the two Soviet Fronts that were stationed off-map onto a playable hex at any point along the north map edge. Although it is not specifically stated in the rules, the arrival of these German Courland transfers during the Replacement Phase of the game turn suggests that, like replacements, they are free to move their full movement allowance on the same turn that they arrive in Germany.

The 17” x 22” colored game map depicts virtually all of the terrain of Southern and Central Europe over which the historical fighting raged. The playing surface, although physically not very large, nonetheless represents a geographical area that extends from Eastern France and the Low Countries in the west to the Polish plains in the east, and from Northern Italy and Yugoslavia in the south to East Prussia in the north. In addition, the Turn Record/Replacement Track, the three Strategic 'Front' Replacement Boxes, and the Terrain key are all printed directly on the game map for ease of reference. In the SPI version, the original two-color game map had the Historical Scenario starting positions for every unit printed directly on the game map. The Decision Games version does not. Players often disagree on the value of this map aid, but however an individual player may feel about unit locations printed on game maps, there is no doubt that this change in the DG map noticeably increases set-up time, particularly for players new to the game. One additional change that shows up in the Decision Games version of the game map is that the East Prussian city of Konigsberg is now fortified; unfortunately for the German player, this defensive improvement is, given the normal flow of the game, virtually irrelevant.

The Combat Results Table (CRT) for BATTLE FOR GERMANY is the familiar odds-differential type. Interestingly, its ordering of random outcomes actually both increases the effectiveness of low-odds attacks, and also makes combat results somewhat “bloodier” than those of the typical NAW CRT. In fact, the only combat odds on this CRT that do not hold some possibility of a loss (whether A Elim or Exchange) for the attacker is an attack at 1 to 2. Attacks at 1 to 1 have a one-sixth chance of an Exchange, a one-sixth chance of an AB2, and a two-thirds chance of a DB2 result. By way of comparison, a 4 to 1 attack in BATTLE FOR GERMANY is exactly the same, at least in probable combat outcomes, as a 3 to 1 on the traditional Avalon Hill CRT. Odds of 3 to 1 or above are required before the attacker has any prospect at all of rolling a D Elim result. Moreover, increasing combat odds does little to reduce the possibility of expensive Exchanges. At 5 to 1 odds, although an attacker has a one-half chance of rolling a D Elim, he still risks a one-third chance of an Exchange. Even at the maximum allowed 7 to 1 odds, the attacker is guaranteed a D Elim only five-sixths of the time; there still remains a one-sixth possibility of rolling an Exchange. Because of this distribution of combat results, “toe-to-toe” slugging matches between the opposing armies tend to produce lots of bloody Exchanges; the real key to this combat system — for the player who wants to establish offensive momentum and favorable attrition without excessive losses — is the creation, through carefully-timed attacker advances, of combat situations in which “surrounded” attacks against enemy units become possible. This is particularly important in this game because units may not retreat through enemy ZOCs or onto or through friendly stacks!

Unit counters in BATTLE FOR GERMANY represent the historical corps, armies, and fronts that actually took part in the final campaigns; in addition, the game counters from both versions of the game are clearly printed and easy to read. In the original SPI game, German units were gray, Russian units were colored red, and all of the western Allied units were olive green. In the DG game, units from every nationality (and even the SS) now have their own colors. If nothing else, this change makes for a much more colorful game map. Another more important change in the Decision Games’ version of BATTLE FOR GERMANY is that it increases the original SPI counter-mix from 100 to 120 units. These additional counters all show up in the Orders of Battle for the Wehrmacht and the Red Army; the number of units assigned to the western Allies remains unchanged. Besides the additional Courland forces already mentioned, the biggest increase in the unit counts of both the Soviet army and the Wehrmacht occur in the southern region of the game map around Yugoslavia and Hungary. This deviation from the original SPI design alters the flow and tempo of the game in several ways. It has the effect of accelerating the Soviet offensives against Budapest and Vienna, while, at the same time, creating an additional pool of badly-needed Axis units that can now be made available for transfer to the central front. Interestingly, the DG version of the game also increases the combat strength of a number of German units, while, at the same time, it reduces the movement allowance of a sizeable number of German infantry corps from five movement points to four.

Victory is determined at the end of the game on the basis of victory points. The side with the most points, except in the three-player game, wins; in the three-player game, the German player wins if he still holds Berlin at the end of the game, regardless of the final point totals of the other two players. The competing sides gain victory points by being the last to move through or occupy cities; enemy and friendly combat losses are irrelevant. Berlin is worth ten victory points; all other cities on the map are worth either one or two victory points. The Red Army, unlike the other belligerents, must meet one additional victory point requirement: a Soviet Front must occupy and garrison any two-point cities that fall to Russian forces within one turn of the city’s capture. Once it enters a two-point city, the garrisoning Front unit may not move, and is not required to retreat as a result of combat. It is important to note that the Soviet player receives NO victory points for any two-point city that he fails to garrison both on time and in the manner prescribed.


BATTLE FOR GERMANY offers six different scenarios, or mini-games: the two-player Historical Scenario (10 game turns long); the Expanded Historical Scenario (16 turns); Collapse in the East (6 game turns); Red Star/White Star: Patton’s Fantasy (6 game turns); the Three-Player Game (10 game turns); and the Four-Player Game (10 game turns long). And although it is tempting to go straight to the Historical Scenario, I strongly recommend that players looking at the game for the first time start with the simpler and shorter Collapse in the East Scenario. This East Front scenario is only six turns long, and simulates the crushing Russian “steamroller” advance through Poland and Hungary towards the German Fatherland. Because only the eastern half of the game map is fought over and none of the western forces are used, it is much easier to set up and play. Thus, all things considered, beginning with this shorter, simpler scenario is probably the best way for players to quickly develop both an understanding of the mechanics of the game system, and of the probable flow and tempo of play. Once new players have tried Collapse in the East a time or two, they will then be ready to confidently move on to the more challenging and interesting Historical Scenario.


The NAPOLEON AT WATERLOO Game System used in BATTLE FOR GERMANY is clean, logical, and easy to learn. This is probably the reason that SPI has used some version of this game system in an impressively large number of its different titles. It has appeared in a number of other Napoleonic games including, but not limited to, the quadri-games NAPOLEON AT WAR and NAPOLEON’S LAST BATTLES; it has also been used for both of SPI’s Civil War quadri-games, BLUE AND GREY I & II. The NAW game system even showed up, strangely enough, in SPI’s magazine game on modern naval operations, SIXTH FLEET. Interestingly, almost every one of the titles that SPI published using this system possessed a few idiosyncrasies that subtly affected each game’s play. BATTLE FOR GERMANY, like its cousins, is no exception. So what follows are a few tips, based on many hours spent playing this title, on using the nuances of this particular game system to help new players become more comfortable with a few of the tactical niceties of the Historical Scenario of BATTLE FOR GERMANY.

The Rules of Combat

The very simplicity of BATTLE FOR GERMANY’s combat rules can trip up the unsuspecting. The first thing that a first-time player should understand is that, unlike most of the other games using this system, zones of control, although rigid, are not “sticky,” and combat between adjacent enemy units is not mandatory. In addition, the attacker may not voluntarily reduce his combat odds in order to minimize the likelihood of Exchanges. This means that: while the phasing player need not use every adjacent unit to attack, any units that are involved in a specific combat must be counted at their full attack value in computing final odds. The times when this is particularly awkward are those when a player is forced to attack an enemy stack that is powerful enough defensively to require the attacking force to lose two units as a result of an Exchange. In such an instance, the attacker must employ at least three units in his attack to be guaranteed of having a surviving unit that can advance if the defender is retreated or eliminated. And however many units actually participate in a successful attack, only one of the victorious units may advance to occupy the defender’s vacated hex.

Not surprisingly, these considerations directly influence the tactics of the game. Using the Red Army as an example, an assault against a German stack totaling only nine defense factors will typical require a Russian attacking force composed of three units in some combination of 7-7-4s, 6-4-6s, and perhaps an 8-20-3. The best possible attack that the Soviet commander could obtain from two hexes (more on this, later) is a 3 to 1 which offers a 16% chance of a D Elim, a 33% chance of an Exchange, and a 50% chance of a DB2. More likely, however, the attack will probably end up being a 2 to 1: an attack that offers a one-third possibility of an Exchange and a two-thirds possibility of a DB2. Optimally, the Russian player would almost always prefer to exchange two 6-4-6s, but since the Red Army only has six of these fast-moving tank armies, this may not always be possible. Being forced to Exchange a pair of 7-7-4s is painful, and losing even a single 8-20-3 is almost always unacceptable. The Russian player also has, at his disposal, a certain number of lower-value Soviet Allied units; these units, however, are — at least after the first few game turns — often a poor choice for use in exchanges. This is because, when these smaller Soviet Allied units are eliminated, they must be returned to play before any larger, faster Russian units may reenter the game as replacements.

Since high odds attacks tend to produce heavy attrition for both the attacker and the defender, an obvious question presents itself: Is there anything that the attacking player can do to limit his casualties when making head-on assaults? The short answer is: sort of. In certain cases, lower-odds attacks may be the best or even the only option available to the phasing player. A 1 to 1 attack, for example, has only a one-sixth chance of an Exchange, a one-sixth possibility of an AB2, and a two-thirds chance of a DB2. 1 to 2 attacks can also be used to good effect in BATTLE FOR GERMANY since they have a one-third chance of producing a DB2 and a two-thirds chance of an AB2. However, these types of assaults will most often be used by the Allied forces in the west, both against the layered and powerful West Wall and Rhine defenses, and against the German fortified line in Northern Italy. The Red Army commander will typically use lower-odds attacks rarely, and when he does, these assaults will usually be directed either against the Axis forces fighting in the mountains of the far south, or against powerful East German stacks defending behind the Vistula or Oder Rivers.


In all of the BATTLE FOR GERMANY scenarios — except for the six turn Red Star/White Star: Patton’s Fantasy mini-game — all three belligerents can, beginning on turn two, return previously eliminated units to play. In the ten turn Historical Game, the Western Allies can bring back up to two corps of any type per game turn, from among those units previously lost in Italy or on the Western Front. The Soviet player may bring back two units on game turns two through five and then one unit per game turn thereafter. The German situation is slightly more complicated: the East Germans may replace one unit each game turn starting on game turn two; the West Germans, however, may only bring in a total of four replacement corps; the first appearing on turn two and the other three spaced out over the remaining eight game turns. Both German players do have one advantage over their adversaries, however; German replacements for either front may double their movement factor on the game turn of entry. In addition, in the cases of both the Soviet and German armies — but not, interestingly enough, the Western Allies — the unit with the lowest attack factor must be replaced first. Also, replacements may not be accumulated; if an army — typically the Western Allies in the late stages of the game — has no units to return to play, then the replacement allowance for that game turn is permanently lost.

In the ten turn Historical Scenario, the East and West Germans are saddled with a thirteen to thirty-one unit disadvantage when their combined replacement allowances are compared to the potential totals of their two adversaries. This fact, coupled with the inevitable East Front first turn losses that are built into the game’s opening set-up, means that the powerful East German panzer corps, once eliminated, are out of play permanently. Instead, the German forces facing the Russians will, in almost all cases, be bringing in a steady stream of “2” attack strength replacements from the second turn through to the end of the game. Only on the Western Front, where the Wehrmacht is both qualitatively stronger and in much better defensive terrain, does the West German player occasionally have the opportunity to replace a few powerful infantry or even panzer units. This huge disadvantage in replacement capacity is, for the Wehrmacht, probably the central challenge posed by the BATTLE FOR GERMANY. How the two German players choose to deal with this problem will, to a large degree, determine their individual prospects for victory.

Stacking, Odds, and Delay Units: 'STALINGRAD' Revisited

The first time I played the SPI version of BATTLE FOR GERMANY, I was struck by a curious sense of déjà vu. In this introductory match, I played the Allies and East Germans. The flow and tempo of the game seemed oddly familiar, and this familiarity was not because of the NAW game system; then it came to me: the game system rewarded many of the same tactics that I had first learned playing Avalon Hill’s old standby, STALINGRAD many years before! For those newer players who are unfamiliar with STALINGRAD, effective Russian defensive play depends on controlling the odds available to the attacking Germans; this is done through the use of terrain and can only be accomplished if the Russian player has a clear understanding of the German Army’s maximum stacking in one, two, and three hexes. The other key element necessary to a successful Russian defense is the tactic of economical delay: that is, the assiduous use of weak, easily-replaced units to cover broad open swaths of the front line. This strategy of using weak blocking units works only because, unlike some other games, there are no “automatic victories” (AVs) or “overruns” in STALINGRAD. Interestingly, there are no AVs or “overruns” possible in BATTLE FOR GERMANY either; therefore any unit, however weak, can hold a section of the front — even against overwhelming odds — for at least a single game turn. And stacking, as already noted, is limited to only two units per hex. These two factors form the heart of defensive tactics in BATTLE FOR GERMANY.

Stated a different way: what all this really means is that, for both the East and West German players, the potential strength of enemy attacks is easy to predict and thus, at least in the early game turns, is easy to plan against. For instance, the maximum attack that the Soviets can launch from one hex is fifteen attack factors; from two hexes it is thirty factors; and from three hexes, forty-five factors. This stacking is based on the fact that only one Soviet Front (8-20-3) may occupy a hex. On the Western Front — because the most powerful Allied unit on attack is an armored corps (7-4-8) of which they only have four — the Allies are limited to stacking fourteen attack factors in one hex, twenty-eight attack factors in two hexes, and forty factors in three hexes. And in Italy, the Allies may only attack with ten factors from one hex, eighteen factors from two hexes, and twenty-six factors (the entire Allied Army in Italy) from three hexes. Given these restrictions on Soviet and Allied stacking, what tactical implications do these limits hold for the Germans?

Obviously, both German players should use every available defensive advantage to blunt their enemies’ offensive options. This means that they must make every effort, because of the anemic German replacement rates, to restrict the odds of both Allied and Soviet attacks as much as possible in order to minimize the possibility of costly Exchanges. To accomplish this goal, both German players should, whenever feasible, position their units so as to exploit the relationship between the defensive multiplier effects of terrain and the limits of enemy stacking. On the Western Front, for example, a single West German infantry corps with a basic defense factor of “5,” when tripled, due to terrain, can only be attacked by the Allies at 1 to 1 from two hexes; two such units stacked together in the same hex can only be attacked at 1 to 2. Because the defensive effects of terrain are cumulative in BATTLE FOR GERMANY, there are many sectors of both the Italian and the Western Fronts where, at least during the early game turns, the Allies will be unable to attack at odds greater than 1 to 2. Such German defensive opportunties, unfortunately, are few and far between in the east, especially in the area of the North Polish Plains. In this critical sector of the Russian Front, the East Germans have little besides a section of the Vistula River to shelter behind, and even this defensive river barrier will typically be rolled up from south to north fairly quickly. Thus, because a sizeable part of his front line will cross open ground, the German player must attempt to defend in these exposed areas using a linear combination of strong defensive stacks and weak delay units. And, of necessity, the East German player’s goals will have to be less ambitious than those of his counterpart in the west. On the wide-open Polish Plains, the Germans will have to be satisfied with restricting most Soviet attacks to 2 to1 or worse. And even that won’t be easy. Still, the key to this Axis tactical approach is, wherever possible, for the East German player to maintain a straight front that follows the hex grain of the map. This type of defensive line will usually form an inverted “V” that points east. A weak delay unit occupies the apex of the “V” while German stacks totaling ten or eleven factors are positioned in the open in such a way that these exposed units can only be attacked by the Soviets from two hexes. With careful positioning, the East German player can, at least for a time, anchor his flanks on the Carpathian Mountains in the south and the Vistula River in the north, and, by so doing, restrict Soviets attacks against undoubled German units to only a few hexes in the center.

Three Different Fronts; Three Different Problems

The West:

The Allied units attacking the Siegfried Line in the west have a very difficult time of it in the early game turns. The West German forces are numerous, powerful, and well-positioned to block an Allied advance. And except for the region of the lower Rhine, German defenses are deeply-layered; thus, line after line must be forced before the Allies have any chance of breaking out into open terrain. Moreover, on the first turn of the game, there is a good chance that the Allies will see as many as three of their corps eliminated by German attacks before any Allied unit even gets a chance to move. Moreover, the West German forces will be able to mount multiple credible counterattack threats for much of the game. None-the-less, the Western Allies have one important advantage: replacements. General Eisenhower’s armies are able to replace, starting on game turn two, two units every turn through the end of the game; Field Marshal Model’s Army Group B, on the other hand, is only able to bring back four corps through turn ten. Thus, for the Western Allies, attrition is really the name of the game. The Allies must maintain constant pressure all along the German front until accumulated territorial gains and German casualties finally push the German defenders past the breaking point. This is why the area of the lower Rhine — running from Cologne to the North Sea — is vitally important to Allied offensive plans: it offers a battle area in which the German defenses are weakest, but for which the West Germans must still fight, whatever the cost. If the Allies are to succeed in finally breaking through the German line and in gaining freedom of maneuver, then they will almost always do so here.


In the Historical Scenario, the Italian Front is, as it was in actuality, pretty much a strategic sideshow. The Germans have both a lot of excellent defensive terrain and a sufficient number of high quality units to hold their line indefinitely. The very most that the Allies can hope for in Italy, when facing a skillful adversary, is to slowly batter the Germans out of their fortified line and back into the Alpine terrain to the north. If the Allies catch a few breaks then they might capture a city or two, but they are definitely going to end the game pretty close to where they started in this theater of operations.

Italy becomes much more interesting in the Three-Player Scenario, or in a variant of the Historical Scenario which also happens to be a personal favorite of mine: a two-player game in which one player controls all of the Soviet and Allied forces, and the other player controls both the East and West Germans. In these two game situations, the transfer of German units between fronts becomes possible, and, because of this fact, there will often be some unit shuffling into and out of Italy. Typically, a shrewd German player will transfer one or more lower quality units into Italy as quickly as possible, so that he can dispatch some of the more powerful corps on the Italian front to other distant battle areas where their presence would be more useful.

The East:

On the Western Front and in Italy, the West German player can, with a little luck and a lot of skill, occasionally fight the Allies to a virtual stalemate; this is not the case on the Eastern Front. In the east there is no doubt as to whether the Germans will give ground in the face of the advancing Russians; the only questions are how fast, and at what cost? East German problems begin before the game even starts: with the opening set-up. A sizeable number of German units begin the game either vulnerable to being surrounded or exposed to high-odds Soviet attacks. And since the red Army moves and attacks first, there is nothing that the East German player can do about the first turn except hope that the Russian player is unlucky, very unlucky.

Different Soviet players, as might be expected, will opt for different first turn moves, depending on their individual temperaments and strategic goals. For my own part, when I play the Russians I attack the German front virtually from one end to the other. If my attacks go very well, I can destroy as many as eleven German corps on the first game turn; if they go very badly, I might eliminate as few as two; the average, however, is five to seven German corps sent to the “replacements box” by the end of the opening round of Russian attacks. I suspect that, based on my experience with other players, this level of German casualties is probably pretty typical.

Confronted with a potential first turn “bloodbath,” what should the East German player do? The short answer is “suck it up” and don’t permit these initial losses, however ghastly, to rattle you. The East Germans, particularly in the DG version of the game, have a reservoir of powerful units available both in the Courland Box and in the south around Budapest that can be transferred, albeit slowly, to the central front. Begin shifting these units as soon as possible; position the surviving corps in the center to hold onto as much of the Vistula as is prudent. Admittedly, the Russians will force a crossing at the eastern-most part of this key river line on the first game turn, but the Germans can still take defensive advantage of much of the remainder of the river; this will deny the Red Army high-odds attacks against any German corps except for one or two delay units on the second game turn. From here on out, the East German player should rely on the linear tactics discussed previously to keep his losses as low as possible, at least through game turn five. Remember: the Soviet player will be more or less impervious to exchanges for the first half of the game; on turn six, however, Russian replacements are cut in half, and the Soviet player will often be forced to modify the aggressiveness of his offensive drive in order to limit his own losses. A German 2-3-4 suddenly becomes a lot more powerful — especially during the last few game turns — when the only Soviet unit that can attack it is an 8-20-3 front.

Tactics for the Defense of the Reich

BATTLE FOR GERMANY, because of the unique approach it takes to modeling the historical campaign, offers both players abundant opportunities to attack and defend, even if these separate actions take place on different fronts. For my own part, however, I find the hopelessness of the German defensive problem interesting; so whenever possible, I volunteer to play the East and West Germans, and allow my opponent to command the more powerful Allies. This predilection to take on the challenges of the German defense has, if nothing else, shown me a small number of tactical tricks that — whatever the unique circumstances of any particular game — I tend to use over and over again. So, for those who are curious, here is a brief list.

First, whenever possible, I have found that the German player should try to shelter his panzers from attack for as long as possible, particularly on the Eastern Front. As the game develops, opportunities will arise for the Germans to launch surrounded counterattacks against advancing Allied units. German armor is usually essential to the success of these counterblows; for this reason, the panzers should be conserved for as long as possible. But not too long! The BATTLE FOR GERMANY CRT is bloody enough that German armored strength will gradually be worn away if only because of persistent enemy 1 to 1 attacks. Given this fact, I don’t usually expect to have much panzer strength left in the East after turn six or so. For this reason, I will usually try to counterpunch in the earlier game turns before the German panzers just melt away. Remember, advances after combat, even by powerful units, can still present counterattack opportunities; with this CRT, even a surrounded 1 to 2 has a 33% chance of eliminating the target unit without any real risk to the attacker. This means that the Germans, although on the strategic defensive, should always be on the lookout for chances to damage their enemies; even low-odds German counterattacks can have real teeth.

Second, one advantage of the DG version of the game is that the German player has been provided with a significantly larger pool of powerful (“5+” defense strength) infantry units than in the SPI original. Although most of these stronger infantry corps are in the far south and in Courland, the German player should begin to bring them into action on the Polish Plains as soon as possible. The most significant effect of this increase in German combat power is that the East German player will now be able to deploy a greater number of defensive stacks totaling nine defense factors or more than previously, and without risking his valuable panzer units. These stacks can, at most, be attacked by the Red Army at 3 to 1 from two hexes (linear tactics, remember). And while a 3 to 1 attack does yield a 16% chance of a D Elim, it still offers a 33% chance of an Exchange, and a 50% chance of a DB2. While not great, these are still not terrible percentages for the Germans, especially in light of the fact that an Exchange will require the elimination of two Russian units along with the two German defenders.

Third, several of the German panzer corps in the west have had both their attack and defense strengths increased. Since I always attack the surrounded American corps on the first turn at 1 to 1, this increase in German combat power comes in very handy. In addition, this change also means that Exchanges against Allied units, particularly infantry corps, are not nearly as punishing as they were in the original SPI game. And yet another benefit of this increase in panzer strength is that it insures that a more potent and aggressive defense can now be mounted against Allied attempts to force the lower Rhine. One critical element in the defense of the lower Rhine, by the way, is to replace the elite 1st Para with other weaker units as quickly as possible so that this German (5-11-4) defensive powerhouse can sideslip east to defend the northern bend of the river. In the meantime, the fight to hold the powerful German fortified line southwest of Cologne can be left mainly to the German infantry; virtually all of the panzers in the Ardennes should slide north, as soon as practicable, towards the Ruhr and the lower Rhine.

Fourth, the Italian Front becomes much more interesting to the German player the instant that units can be swapped from one theater to another. Usually I use strategic movement to transfer the 4th Panzer Grenadier Corps from the East Front to Italy on turn one. On turn two, I will begin preparations to move the powerful 2nd Para (4-9-4) in staged strategic jumps from Italy to its final destination somewhere east of the Rhine River near Cologne and Essen. On more than one occasion, this powerful unit has arrived just in time to block an Allied breakout into the Ruhr.

Fifth, if the Red Army has sustained significant losses due to Exchanges, it is sometimes worthwhile for the Germans to counterattack one or more of the weaker Soviet Allied units just to postpone the return of the stronger and faster Russian armies. It can be very frustrating for the Soviet player to have to replace these slow-moving units when he has more valuable Russian tank and infantry armies sitting in his Replacement Box. It is even more frustrating still, if a valuable, but slow-moving Soviet Front has been eliminated.

Sixth and last, the DG version of BATTLE FOR GERMANY adds, among other new German units, an SS cavalry corps to the East Front forces deployed in the far south near Yugoslavia. This unit is usually more valuable on the main front than in the Yugoslavian backwater, so I will often expose it to a high-odds Soviet attack in the hopes that it will be eliminated and sent to the East German Replacement pool. Once there, it will become the East Front replacement of choice for much of the rest of the game. The reason: its movement allowance (when doubled) permits it to reach almost any sector of the Eastern Front that requires a sacrifice unit on the same game turn that it reenters play. Because the slower-moving 2-3-4s and 2-4-4s typically require two turns to reach the front — especially during the early stages of the game — this speedy little cavalry corps insures that more valuable German units don’t have to be wasted as delay units while their less useful brethren are making their way to the front.


Simple games tend to get a bad rap from far too many gamers. The lack of complexity and historical detail offered by these titles has, for many years now, encouraged a vocal segment within the hobby to dismiss them as a waste of time for experienced players. I occasionally find that I am guilty of this bias, myself. None-the-less, I think that this wide-spread prejudice against small, simple games misses the point. Speaking as a player who, over the years, has logged hundreds of hours in the play of a variety of different monster games, I personally find quite a few of these small, uncluttered designs to be both a great change of pace from their bigger, more complicated brethren, and great fun.

Such is the case with BATTLE FOR GERMANY. This game, despite its age and uncomplicated game system, offers an easy-to-learn and very enjoyable simulation of the last stages of the greatest series of military offensives in history. The basic premise of the game is simple: Hitler’s Third Reich — outnumbered, bled white after almost six years of total war, and beset on all sides by powerful enemy armies — continues to fight on; the Wehrmacht, instead of capitulating, conducts a desperate, if hopeless, defense of Germany right up to the bitter end. I don’t know why, but this historical situation, despite the certainty of its ultimate outcome, really works for me. In addition, the inclusion of a set of additional scenarios means that, even if a player doesn’t care that much for the Historical Game, he can still experiment for many hours with this title and not exhaust its different possibilities. Granted, BATTLE FOR GERMANY does not rank very high as an accurate or detailed simulation — it is, after all, probably as good an example as one can find of a true “beer and pretzels” game — nonetheless, it still has enough historical color to make it attractive to the player who is genuinely interested in the final campaigns that brought about the collapse of the Third Reich. Finally, BATTLE FOR GERMANY makes a great introductory game: it is intuitively logical, and extremely easy, even for a complete novice, to learn how to play. Moreover, its central game problem makes it an excellent candidate for solitaire play. And, lest we forget the regular game player: BATTLE FOR GERMANY, in my opinion, has more than enough competitive excitement to make it enjoyable to the typical gamer who is just looking for a fun, well-balanced, and interesting challenge.


  • Great review, Joe, and this DG version (as well as its SPI predecessor) remains one of my all-time favorite "simple" games. I never get tired of it and the multi-player possibilities make this a blast in many different types of settings (club play as well as one-on-one FTF).

  • Greetings Eric:

    Obviously, based on my "game analysis," I agree completely. This game, along with BORODINO and WAR AT SEA, is one of three of my all-time favorite "simple" games. It is -- in my opinion, at least -- always challenging (particularly for the Germans) and never dull: a great and under-appreciated little gem of a game.

    Best Regards, Joe

  • Joe, Very in-depth review and thanks for a look at the updated version of the game. I found this title fascinating because its topic is comparatively little considered in both wargames and historical works. Amazing how so many people can fixate on six weeks in 1940 but be practically bored by five months at the other end of the war. I am slowly working on a TOAW scenario modeling the Battle of Germany but want to experiment with a France 1940 system of having infantry corps and armored divisions (armies and tank / mech corps for the Soviets). Should be interesting to playtest if nothing else.

    I always wondered about the values assigned to the Soviet fronts in this title. The defense rating is sound, not so sure about the low attack factor, especially considering the artillery divisions that supported the fronts in 1945.


    W. B. Wilson

  • Greetings WB:

    Thank you for visiting and for your kind words; both are appreciated.

    And yes, I think that you are quite correct in your observation that there is a real dearth of titles that deal specifically with the last year or so -- the "death throes" of the Third Reich, so to speak -- of the War in Europe. Obviously, the later scenarios in John Edwards' 'FORTRESS EUROPA' deliver some simulation value when it comes to this period of combat operations (at least on the Western Front). Moreover, although they are out of favor and, admittedly, a bit old-fashioned by today's standards, AH's 'D-DAY' and SPI's 'BREAKOUT AND PURSUIT' also still -- at least in my view -- give those players (who can track a copy of one or both of these games down) an interesting and challenging set of game problems.

    When it comes to your second point, the combat strengths that were assigned to the Soviet Fronts by the game's designer, Jimmy Dunnigan, I am actually inclined to give him the benefit of the doubt in this instance. As you note, the Soviet Fronts are very powerful defensively (all those artillery tubes) which I think is reasonable; on the attack, however, it is important to remember that, except for self-propelled artillery assets like the SU-52, Russian operational doctrine tended to call for the towed artillery to remain in their original firing positions for several weeks after their fire missions in support of a new offensive, so I can see the powerful artillery arm of the various Fronts being temporarily left behind (given the length of the game's turns) as the Red Army pursued the Wehrmacht west.

    Best Regards, Joe

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